Timeline...

 

  • 0043 AD - The Roman Legions invaded Britain.
  • 0550 - Maelgwn, the King of north Wales, died from 'yellow plague'.
  • 0778 - The Welsh lose Shrewsbury to the Saxons.
  • 1070 - William the Conqueror visits Chester & plans the conquest of Wales.
  • 1255-57 - Unsuccessful expeditions by the english into Wales.
  • 1277 - Edward I invaded Wales, moving from Chester along the north Wales coast with 15,000 men. Building strongholds as they advanced, the english eventually reached Anglesey where they prevented the annual grain harvest from reaching the welsh mainland. Humbled, though not crushed, Llywelyn Prince of Wales was obliged to accept the 'Treaty of Conwy' which stripped him of most of his rights & possessions.
  • 1284 - The Statute of Rhuddlan was issued, which effectively sealed welsh fate.
  • 1296 - English King Edward I, was well aquainted with the lead mining activities of Minera, and at this time ordered that skilled men from the area should be sent to Devon & Cornwall at his expense.
  • 1339 - Brymbo was first referred to as a township near 'Grexham', and was variously described as 'Brinbow', 'Brenbowe' and 'Brinbo'. In later years with developing industry and the number of spoil banks, the area became known as 'Brynbaw' (eng.trans: Dirt Hill).
  • 1349 - The Black Death enters Wales.
  • 1400 - The population of Wrexham was 3,000.
  • 1400 - The rise of Owain Glyndwr to power.
  • 1401 - Owain Glyndwr assumed the title of Prince of Wales.
  • 1402 - Welsh defeat the English at the battles of Vyrnwy and Pilleth.
  • 1403 - The battle of Shrewsbury.
  • 1404 - Owain Glyndwr captures both Harlech and Aberystwyth Castles. A Welsh Parliament is summoned at Machynlleth.
  • 1408 - The Welsh are defeated by the english forces of Henry IV.
  • 1410 - The 'right to dig' for coal in the wastes of 'Harwd' (Brymbo) and 'Coedpoeth' was given to the burgesses of Holt.
  • 1412 - Coedpoeth was referred to as a 'waste' at this time.
  • 1415 - Death of Owain Glyndwr.
  • 1542 - The union of England and Wales.
  • 1597 - A Chapel is noted as being at Minera.
  • 1616 - Dorothy Roberts built Llidiart Fanny (farm) on Offas Dyke at Talwrn, Coedpoeth.
  • 1620 - Eighty acres of land at Minera was owned by a Chester butcher named Owen Jones, who in his will, left the rents and profits from this land to the 'poor of Chester'.
  • 1620 - Coedpoeth was listed as a 'common' and an area where the digging for coal was permitted to the freemen of Holt. It is noted that Coedpoeth was heavily wooded at this time, and that much of this timber was used in the making of charcoal. The name Coedpoeth (eng.trans: hotwood) derives from this process.
  • 1665 - The Great Plague reaches Wrexham, brought to the town by a stage-coach traveller from London who stayed at the White Bear Tavern in High Street.
  • 1683 - Sir Thomas Grosvenor granted Roger Mostyn of Brymbo, liberty to dig, sink for and obtain coal on Coedpoeth Common.
  • 1685 - The Welsh name for Minera which is Mwynglawdd, made its first appearance at this time. The name 'Minera' is a Latin word meaning 'ore'.
  • 1757 - In the Brymbo and Minera districts, all coal, ironstone and lime was sold by measure and not by weight. The name of this measure was a 'scare'. It is noted....."The height of every Scare of big coal to be two yards; the breadth, three quarters of a yard; and the depth, half a yard..."  The 'Piche' was another form of coal measure and was equivilant to a truck load that was used down the pit.
  • 1761 - John Wilkinson took over the Bersham Ironworks.
  • 1761-81 - In excess of 10,000 tons of lead ore was raised at Minera, yielding £13,000 in royalties for the Owen Jones Trust for the poor of Chester.
  • 1765 - William Wilkinson entered into partnership with his brother John, and managed the Bersham Iron Works.
  • 1773 - Snow fell heavily on the 2nd of February... "Burying cottages, man and cattle, and many souls perished..." 
  • 1774 - John Wilkinson patented a boring machine to 'machine' the cannons he manuafactured at Bersham Iron Works.
  • 1776 - William Wilkinson left Bersham to establish the French State Iron Works.
  • 1786 - Until this time the village of Southsea was known as 'Glanrafon'.
  • 1790 - Coedpoeth Colliery was at work on the 6th of July. Number 7 pit was sunk between September 10th & November 27th, & reached a depth of 120 feet.
  • 1796 - A lake was constructed in Moss Valley by Thomas Telford as a feeder reservoir for the Ffrwd Canal which had begun construction, and which was intended to be a continuation of the intended branch of the Canal network from Trevor.
  • 1798 - The Ellesmere Canal proprietors gave orders to discontinue work on the Ffrwd Canal. The section being worked at that time was a basin from Summerhill to the 'Yord' in Ffrwd, and was completed at a cost of £9,135:1:4d. (A section of this canal can still be seen today.) 
  • 1798 - The Maes-y-ffynnon-wen and the Cae-mynydd Lead Mines at Minera were supplied with gun-powder by a Samuel Hughes of Wrexham, and William Lacon of Oswestry. In the West-End mines of Minera, tallow candles were supplied by Joseph Lloyd of Wrexham and, in the 19th Century by Beirnies Brewery, also of Wrexham.
  • 1799 - John Wilkinson was granted a 21 year lease on the 'Charity Lands' of Minera at a rent of 30 guineas per annum and a royalty of 30 shillings for every ton of lead ore.
  • 1800's - Such were the unhealthy conditions of Wrexham, that it was essential for relatives to keep a ceaseless vigil over their dead before the funeral, to ensure that the corpse remained intact from the ravages of rats which infested the sewerless town.
  • 1800's - What water supply Wrexham had came chiefly from wells and pumps, more often than not contaminated by heaps of filth from earth closets in the vicinity of the supply. Smallpox, diptheria, typhus and cholera were among diseases which regularly frequented the town.
  • 1801 - The first Public Census was undertaken in this year.
  • 1806 - The Vron Colliery shafts at Tanyfron were sunk by Rogers of Coedpoeth.
  • 1812 - Richard Kirk installed the first weighing machine in the district, at Southsea Colliery. Prior to this coal was not sold in weight, but by the 'Piche'  (see 1757).
  • 1815 - Ffrwd Colliery was being worked by the Kyrke family.
  • 1819 - Coedpoeth's Pentrefron Colliery (also known as Old Talwrn Pit), ceased working when it was drowned out in the September of this year. Two men were drowned underground and after 12 days and nights a John Evans was found alive in a cavity of a roofspace and was rescued. He had survived in the darkness by eating candles and drinking the water dripping from the rock above. The Colliery management had arranged for three coffins to be availiable at the pit head for the men's bodies, but John Evans was able to keep his at his home as an item of furniture for many years!
  • 1820 - The Charity Lands (also known as City Lands) at Minera, previously leased by John Wilkinson, were leased to kirk and Burton for a 21 year period on the same terms as the previous lease.
  • 1833 - Robert Waithman - Wrexham's very own answer to 'Dick Whittington' died on february 6th. Wrexham born in 1764, the son of a joiner at Bersham Iron Works - he was elected Member of Parliament for the City of London in 1818, became High Sheriff of London & Middlesex in 1820, and Lord Mayor of London in 1823.
  • 1841 - The first Public Census containing any relevant information for todays family researchers was undertaken in this year.
  • 1842 - The population of Wrexham was 7,000.
  • 1842 - The 'Brymbo Mineral Railway Company' re-introduced plans for a railway scheme from Wrexham to Chester, with additional branch lines to Brymbo, Minera & Ffrwd. However, due to the opposition of landowners and a general apathy, the proposals were again 'shelved'.
  • 1845 - The Vron Colliery was at work and an incline had been constructed to transfer coal down to Tanyfron.
  • 1845 - The North Wales Mineral Railway Extension Act provided for a railway line from Wheatsheaf Junction to Brymbo & Minera via the construction of both the Moss & Black Lane Tunnels.
  • 1847 - The Brymbo section of the North Wales Mineral Railway line had been completed. The railway line stretched from Wheatsheaf Junction (Gwersyllt) to Minera via  both the Gwersyllt & Moss 'Brakes' and both the Moss & Black Lane Tunnels. The line included branches to Vron, Ffrwd & Brynmally.
  • 1850 - Nantyffrith Hall was built by Thomas Fry, a Liverpoool merchant, to serve as a hunting lodge for himself & his friends.
  • 1850 - The 'Minera Mining Company' was established.

  • 1850 - Nantyffrith Hall was built by Thomas Fry, a Liverpoool merchant, to serve as a hunting lodge for himself & his friends.
  • 1850 - The 'Minera Mining Company' was established.
  • 1852 - The 'Minera Lime Company' was established, operating 17 kilns.
  • 1852 - On July 2nd runaway railway waggons from Minera crashed into the locomotive 'Charlotte' on the Brymbo to Minera railway line. Two men who were riding on the footplate of the loco were killed.
  • 1853 - A new 'lode' was discovered at the lead mines at Minera and profits of over half a million pounds were made in the following 25 years. Over 1,000 men were employed at Minera at this time.
  • 1857 - There was an explosion at the Talwrn Colliery in Coedpoeth on August 21st. The colliery was owned by Mr Burton.
  • 1858 - The Brymbo & Pentresaeson Metallurgical Works were working in May of this year. The latter (later used as a foundry) having been newly built by Mr Darlington.
  • 1859 - It became necessary to define the extent of the 'City Lands' at Minera. Marker stones were erected along the boundary bearing the inscription 'Owen Jones 1859' . These stones are still visible today.
  • 1862 - The Great Western Railway Company laid a railway line from Croesnewydd South Fork, Wrexham upto Brymbo. Opened on May 22nd, this eliminated all Goods & Minerals from Brymbo & Minera having to negotiate the existing two brakes and two tunnels of the North Wales Mineral line down to Wheatsheaf Junction.
  • 1863-64 - The Minera Lead Mines produced 6,800 tons of ore in this 12 month period.
  • 1864 - A tragic accident occured at the Grosvenor Pit, Coedpoeth in the November of this year. A man whose clothing became entangled with the winding rope, was wound over the pit-head pulley.
  • 1865 - Minera Church was built.
  • 1865 - The 'Minera Lime Company' became a 'Limited Company' &  took over the existing works previously leased by the 'Brymbo Company' on July 1st.
  • 1865 - A lead miner was killed at the Park Lead Mine at Minera when the 'kibble', in which he was being lowered down  the shaft, caught onto some staging and tipped him out causing him to fall to the shaft bottom. A colleague travelling with him, saved himself by hanging onto the chain until the kibble corrected itself. They had chosen this method of descent as an alternative to decending the 675 feet by rope ladder, an effort which took about half an hour. In this same year, a Mr Pickering was killed at the Ellerton Lead Mine, Minera, when a shot misfired.
  • 1866 - 'Charlotte', the locomotive that worked the Brymbo to Minera Railway jumped the track at the Wern curve and ploughed into the embankment. The driver was pinned beneath a wagon and sustained a shattered leg.
  • 1867 - William Low first lived at Lloft Wen in Adwy, Coedpoeth. An engineer and coal-owner, he submitted his plans to Napoleon III for a Channel crossing in this year. In a report published by 'Hughes & Sons' of Hope Street, Wrexham, Low stated that the Channel tunnel would cost £12 million to construct and could be completed in 10 years... Associated with the Vron Colliery, he later built 'Roseneath', a house which later became amalgamated with the Wrexham War Memorial Hospital.
  • 1867 - The 'Minera Lime Company' purchased a locomotive, which they called 'Minera', to shunt and haul the ore to the Minera weigh-bridge.
  • 1868 - There was an accident at Pentresaeson Colliery during the month of March.
  • 1868 - On July 1st a fire broke out at the Talwrn Colliery of Coedpoeth, owned by Messrs. Burton & Burton.
  • 1868 - The first Hoffman Kiln was built at Minera Lime Works.
  • 1869 - The Jockey Mine at Coedpoeth, located behind the old Methodist Church is noted as working at this time.
  • 1869 - The New Grosvenor Colliery, near the Coedpoeth railway station, began operations.
  • 1870 - Wrexham Town Council gave their support to William low's Channel Tunnel plans, and sought the support of Prime Minister William Gladstone.
  • 1871 - Pentre Saeson Colliery was in liquidation.
  • 1872 - The offices of the Channel Tunnel Company were registered as being at 'Roseneath', with William Low noted as one of its engineers. The Channel Tunnel scheme was only given lukewarm support by the British Government, and they refused to supply the finances.
  • 1872 - The 'Minera Lime Company' carried out the first of many 'big blasts', and it was following one of these blasts that bones (thought to be pre-historic), were found.
  • 1873 - The locomotive 'Minera' at the Minera Lime Works, became derailed as it crossed the 'crusher bridge' within the works, and fell to the track below, killing both the driver and another workman.
  • 1874 - A second Hoffman Kiln was built at the Minera Lime Works.
  • 1875 - Representatives of 18 collieries in Denbighshire & Flintshire met at the Talbot Inn, Wrexham, to consider the formation of one union, namely 'The North Wales Association of Miners', to represent them all. Thomas Charles of Brymbo and William Lester of Adwy'r Clawdd, Coedpoeth, were prominent in the cause.
  • 1875 - The Channel Tunnel scheme had still been proceeding but differences occured among the sponsors and at this time, William Low transferred his allegiance to the 'Anglo-Welsh Submarine Railway Company' who had already purchased land on either side of the Channel in preporation of the project. Following French defeat in the Franco-Prussian war, French enthusiasm disappeared, and the prevailing wrangling and anti-tunnel climate eventually saw an abandonment of the scheme.
  • 1875 - The sinking of the shafts of Plas Power Colliery commenced on September 14th, under Nathaniel R. Griffith.
  • 1877 - The Main Coal was reached at Plas Power Colliery. the pit manager was John Henry Darby.
  • 1880 - William Low's Channel tunnel scheme is revived by Sir Edward Watkin, railway promotor, who spent several thousand pounds on preliminary work and sank two shafts from which tunnels were driven, before abandoning the scheme. These shafts are still visible today and William low's plans are still in existance.
  • 1882 - the Vron Colliery was closed & placed in the hands of a liquidator. 
  • 1883 - The Plas Power Railway Station on the great Western Railway was opened for passengers on January 22nd. In this same month the Company refused a petition to extend the passenger carrying service beyond Brymbo and onto Minera.
  • 1883 - Nantyffrith Hall was enlarged by Richard Venables Kyrke.
  • 1884 - Working ceased at the New Grosvenor Colliery at Coedpoeth.
  • 1884 - A 'Big blast' took place at Lester's Limeworks, Minera, at 3pm on May 10th. The rock face selected for blasting was 300 feet long and similar in height. Tunnels of 60 feet in length had been driven into the face and these were 180 feet apart. 20 cwts of explosives were packed in one tunnel & 23 cwts into the other. A dull roar and a dust cloud was followed by a shower of small rocks as 23,000 tons of rockface had been blasted away.
  • 1886 - September 30th saw riots at Plas Power Colliery by colliers from rival mines who objected to the Company's workforce (Broughton & Plas Power Coal Co.) sending up 21cwts. to the ton. Pit tubs were thrown down the shaft and work was not resumed until October 4th. The Quarter sessions of November 17th awarded  the company £209:14:7d for the damages incurred to their property during the riot. 
  • 1887 - The Great Western Railway were hauling out three train loads daily from the Minera Lime Company, who now owned 212 of their own railway waggons.
  • 1891 - Weekly payments required from parents & guardians for their childrens schooling was abolished.
  • 1891 - A very severe winter saw most industry apart from coal mining at a stand still. Bread & coal was distributed to the poor as the area remained frost bound for 55 days.
  • 1894 - Minera Lime Company organised the first of many outings for 152 of their work force, with a trip to Liverpool at a cost of 1/9d for each rail fare. In later years workers enjoyed trips to Rhyl, Llandudno & Barmouth. The Lime Company enjoyed a good relationship with its workforce & never experienced any strike action from their employee's throughout its existance.
  • 1894 - Berwig Quarry at Minera, saw its stone being used in the building of St. George's Hall & the Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool & other public buildings in Manchester.
  • 1899 - The 'Lester Lime Company' & the 'Minera Lime Company' amalgamated.

  • 1901 - An accident occured at the Meadow Shaft of the Minera Lead Mines on February 6th when four men were killed. Forming part of the night shift, the four men were lowered down the shaft in a carrier cage when through some defect the 'eye bolt' from which the carrier was suspended broke when a decent of 180 yards had already been made. The men within the carrier fell the remaining 400 yards to the shaft bottom where the men were instantly killed, "...their bodies being mangled in a terrible, shocking manner..." - Wrexham Advertiser.
  • 1901 - The Minera Lime Company quarried 125,000 tons in this year. (In total, about 8 million tons of high quality limestone has been obtained from Minera, - an average of 80,000 tons per year over a 100 years.)
  • 1904 - A cave was discovered after blasting at Minera Lime Works which contained a human skeleton and other bones. The British Museum officials, who visited the site declared that there was little doubt that these remaiuns were pre-historic.
  • 1904 - Silica sand was being mined on Minera mountain. The tunnels were lined with timber due to the unstable ground conditions. A great deal of this timber came from the ship 'The Great Eastern', a steam ship which had been used for laying trans-atlantic cables in 1862. The ship was dismantled at Tranmere and the timber transported to Minera by rail. An overhead aeriel railway transported the sand from the mine down the mountainside to the Minera Lime Works.
  • 1905 - The businesses of Coedpoeth campaigned for the Great Western Railway Company to lay a track from Coedpoeth Station into the village centre. Local business claimed the station was too far away (being located in Minera) to serve them properly and was of little convenience. Regardless, their petition failed miserably.
  • 1905 - Local tramp William Henry Williams was found badly burnt in the Hoffman Kiln at Minera Lime Works on December 21st. Discovered at 3 a.m. by lime burner Thomas Lewis, Williams died through his injuries at the Wrexham Workhouse later that day.
  • 1908 - It was reported on March 12th in the Wrexham Advertiser, that the Minera Lead Mines were to cease pumping operations, and 'notice' had been given to the workforce.
  • 1911 - The Minera Silica Sand Mine on Minera mountain ceased operations.
  • 1919 - The very last 'Big blast' took place at Minera Lime Works.
  • 1919 - Boundary Shaft at Minera Lead Mines was re-opened  by Heth Jones, Same Evans & Ben Whinkley, to work the north vein. Winding was by the principle of a 'whim' or 'gin', and ladderways gave access to the 120 yard level.
  • 1921 - On April 18th the Power House burned down at Plas Power Colliery.
  • 1922 - The population of Wrexham was noted as 19,000.
  • 1926 - Workers at the Minera Lime Works were unemployed as no lime was burned due to the coal miners strike.
  • 1930 - During the 'great depression', Vron Colliery at Tanyfron closed after operating for 124 years.
  • 1932 - A general depression in trade, Minera Lime Works were not operating and Brymbo Steelworks were closed.
  • 1933 - The 'Minera Lime Company' finally closed down.
  • 1936 - The Forge Coke Ovens at Southsea ceased operations.
  • 1938 - Plas Power Colliery closed down in July under the management of A.McNeish. The pit had employed 450 men underground & 170 on the surface.
  • 1939 - Only 11 pits now operated in the Wrexham area.
  • 1940 - Minera mountain was set alight by German Incendiary bombs on the 30th/31st of August. The Luftwaffe on their way to bomb Liverpool were attracted by the blaze over the next two nights in the belief it was a strategic target. The mountain fire spread upto 28 square miles.
  • 1941 - No public census was undertaken for first time since 1801 due to war with Germany. 
  • 1942 - Coedpoeth Colliery, near Five Crosses was again operating & employing eight men. This pit was possibly one of Earl Grosvenor's original pits started in 1790. 
  • 1942 - Offa's Dyke Colliery at Vron, owned by John Houghton employed 30 men.
  • 1943 - Offa's Dyke Colliery at Vron ceased operating.
  • 1945 - Coedpoeth Colliery ceased operations.
  • 1945 - On the night of October 6th, Mrs Caroline Evans, teacher at Coedpoeth Infants School was murdered on a footpath in Pant Twyll near the village cemetery. The crime remains unsolved.
  • 1953 - Financial support was withdrawn from the Boundary Shaft Lead Mine at Minera, and the mine was forced to cease working.
  • 1954 - Minera Lime Works was taken over by 'Adam Lythgoe Limited'.
  • 1962 - Brymbo's 'bottle chimney', part of John Wilkinsons Lead smelting area was part demolished by Army Engineers on November 17th.
  • 1967 - Coedpoeth born missionary, Miss Winnie Davies, who had been reported missing for two & a half years in the Congo, was reported to have been killed by rebels on May 28th. A former nurse at Liverpool, she was trained for missionary work at Birkenhead prior to her first post in the Congo in 1946.
  • 1982 - 2 p.m. on October 1st, the last train left Brymbo - ending a rail link that had lasted since 1847.
  • 1984 - All Saints Church at Southsea is demolished.
  • 1984 - An earth tremor hits the area at 7:57 a.m. on July 19th, with a reading of over 5 on the Richter Scale and lasting for 25 seconds.
  • 1992 - The closure of Brymbo Steelworks.
  • 1993 - The closure of Minera Limestone Quarry.
  • 2001 - The closure and demolition of the Joiners Arms, Bwlchgwyn.
  • 2002 - The closure of Bwlchgwyn Post Office.
  • 2005 - The closure of the Westminster Arms, Bwlchgwyn.
  • 2006 - The closure of the Milestone Motel, Bwlchgwyn.
  • 2006 - The closure of the City Arms Inn, Minera.
  • 2007 - The demolition of Rehobeth Chapel, Coedpoeth.
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